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 Depth of Foundations

Anthony, R., and Pandy, A., 1996. Determining the Length of Timber Piles in Transportation Structures." Engineering Data Management, Inc. www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/PDF1996/Antho96a.pdf

http://www.infraseis.com

 Infraseis, Inc. Web Site.  Ultraseismic Test Methods, http://www.infraseis.com/ust.htm

Infraseis, Inc. Web Site. Borehole Radar. www.infraseis.com/radar0.htm

 Mercado, E., and J. McDonald, 2002.  Two New Non-destructive Methods to Measure Scour Depth and the Depth of Unknown Foundations.  Paper in Proceedings of Geophysics 2002, American Society of Civil Engineers, Los Angeles, CA.

 Morgano, C.M., 1996, Determining Embedment Depth of Deep Foundations using Non-destructive Methods.  www.web.pile.com/Education/698/default.asp?company=PDI

 Nazarian, S., and J. Diehl, 2000.  Use of Geophysical Methods in Construction.  Paper in Proceedings of GEO-DENVER 2000, American Society of Civil Engineers, Denver, CO.

 New York State Department of Transportation, Geotechnical Engineering Bureau, 2000.  Drilled Shaft Inspector's Guidelines. GEM-18. www.dot.state.ny.us/tech_serv/geo/dsiman1a.pdf

 Olson Engineering Web Site. Sonic Echo/ Impulse Response. www.olsonengineering.com/SEIR.html

 Olson, L., Jalinoos, F., Aouad M.  Determination of Unknown Subsurface Bridge Foundations, Transportation Research Board, National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Project 21-5, Final Report, August 1995. 

 Rausche, F., G. Likins, and Shen Ren Kung, 1992.  Pile Integrity Testing and Analysis. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, The Netherlands.  http://web.pile.com/Education/645/default.asp?company=GRL

 Stegman Engineering Web Site. Length Determination or Integrity Testing. http://www.stegmanengineering.com/geotech.htm#Pile/Caisson


 Socketing

 Dong-Soo Kim, Hyung-Woo Kim, 2000.  Impact Echo Response of Rock Socketed Drilled Shafts. Paper in Proceedings of First International Conference on the Application of Geophysical Methodologies & NDT to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure, St. Louis, MO. www.modot.state.mo.us/g2000/PAPERS/CAT4/GEOPH38.PDF

 Finno, R.J., 1997.  Parallel Seismic Evaluation of the NDE Test Section at the National Geotechnical Experimentation Site at Northwestern University. Final Report to the Infrastructure Technology Institute. http://iti.acns.nwu.edu/projects/NDE/pse_index.html#contents

 Oklahoma Department of Transportation, 2000.  Design of Rock Socketed Drilled Shafts. http://www.dot.state.oh.us/divplan/research/FY03ProblemStatements/DrilledShafts.pdfm

 Integrity Testing

 Amir, J., 2002.  Single-tube Ultrasonic Testing of Pile Integrity. http://www.piletest.com/papers/shut/Orlando2002.htm

 Electrical and Magnetic Methods of Nondestructive Testing. 2nd edition, Book, http://www.normas.com/ASNT/pages/447.htm 

 Finno, R.J., 1997.  Parallel Seismic Evaluation of the NDE Test Section at the National Geotechnical Experimentation Site at Northwestern University. Final Report to the Infrastructure Technology Institute. http://iti.acns.nwu.edu/projects/NDE/pse_index.html#contents

 Finno, R.J., and P. Champy, 1997. Cross-hole Sonic Logging Evaluation of Drilled Shafts at the Northwestern University National GeoTechnical Experimentation Site.  Final Report to the Infrastructure Technology Institute. http://www.iti.northwestern.edu/projects/NDE/

 Hanna, K., K. Haramy, A. Rock, and B. Hoekstra, 2000.  Three-Dimensional Tomographic Imaging for Deep Foundation Integrity Testing. Paper in Proceedings of First International Conference on the Application of Geophysical Methodologies & NDT to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure, St. Louis, MO. http://www.modot.state.mo.us/g2000/PAPERS/CAT4/GEOPH54.PDF

 Haramy, K.Y, and N. Mekic-Stall, 2000.  Cross-hole Sonic Logging and Tomographic Imaging Surveys to Evaluate the Integrity of Deep Foundations - Case Studies. FHWA. www.cflhd.gov/CSL-Tomo.

 Haramy, K.Y, and N. Mekic-Stall, 2000.  Evaluation of Drilled Shafts at Piney Creek Bridge using Cross-hole Sonic Logging Data and 3D Tomographic Imaging Method. Paper in Proceedings of First International Conference on the Application of Geophysical Methodologies & NDT to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure, St. Louis, MO. www.modot.state.mo.us/g2000/PAPERS/CAT4/GEOPH49.PDF

Impact-Echo Instruments, LLC. Web Site.  www.impact-echo.com

InfraSeis, Inc. Web Site. www.infraseis.com/ust.htm

 Innovative Technology Summary Report, DOE/EM-0538. Electrical Resistance Tomography for Subsurface Imaging. http://apps.em.doe.gov/ost/pubs/itsrs/itsr17.pdfm 

 Iskander, M., D. Roy, 2001.  Class-A Prediction of Construction Defects in Drilled Shafts. Transportation Research Board, Session on Drilled Shaft Capacity & Defects in Varved Clay. 

 Jalinoos, F., 1995  Ultrasonic Cross-hole and Crossmedium Tomography for the Detection of Defects in Structural Concrete. Paper in Proceedings of SAGEEP '95, Orlando, FL.

 Natural Resources Canada, 2002.  Spectral Gamma-Gamma, Geological Interpretation of Density and Spectral Gamma-Gamma (SGG) Logs.  http://borehole.gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/sgg_e.html

 Olson Engineering, Inc. Web Site. Cross-hole Sonic Logging. http://www.olsonengineering.com/CSL.html

 Olson Engineering, Web Site. Sonic Echo/ Impulse Response. www.olsonengineering.com/SEIR.html

 Olson Instruments, Inc Web Site.  Single Hole Sonic Logging. http://www.olsoninstruments.com/site/csl.html

 Research and Technology Transporter, Federal Highway Administration, 2001. New CSL Method Makes Process More Accurate. K. Y. Haramy.  http://www.tfhrc.gov/trnsptr/jan01/jan01.pdf

 Rucker, M., M. Verquer, 2002. Gamma Density Logging of Drilled Shafts - Some Observations and Interpretations. Paper in Proceedings of Geophysics 2002, Los Angeles, CA.

 Sample Specifications for Crosshole Sonic Logging (CSL). www.web.pile.com/download/docs/csl.rtf

 Test Method Review- A Comparison of Gamma-gamma and Cross-hole Sonic Logging. http://members.aol.com/ndtman1/papers/gammacsl.zip

 Rebar Quality

 ACI Committee 222, 1996. Corrosion of Metals in Concrete. Publication ACI 222.R-96, http://www.civil.uwaterloo.ca/soudki/222r-96.pdf

 Berke, M., 2000. Nondestructive Materials Testing with Ultrasonics, Introduction to Basic Principles. NDT.net, September 2000, Vol. 5, No. 09.  http://www.ndt.net/article/v05n09/berke/berke1.htm

 Branagan and Associates Inc., Nondestructive Testing Service for Assessing Cast-in-Place Concrete Columns, www.branagan.com/pdf_files/B&A_CSL%20Services.pdf,

 Corrosion Doctors Website, http://www.corrosion-doctors.org

 Corvib Web Site, http://www.corvib.com/concrete/canin.htm

 Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Theory: A Primer. www.gamry.com/G2/Appnotes/Reference/EISTheory/Theory/EIS_Theory.htm

 Gannon, E. and Cady, P., 1992, Condition Evaluation of Concrete Bridges Relative to Reinforcement Corrosion, Strategic Highway Research Program; SHRP_S/FR-92-103. http://gulliver.trb.org/publications/shrp/SHRP-S-330.pdf

 Germann Website. http://www.germann.org/products/power.htm

 Halfcell Potential Testing. MGA web site, www.mg-assoc.co.uk/halfcell.htm

 Introduction to Corrosion Monitoring. http://www.alspi.com/corrosion(intro).pdf

 KH Design and Development Web site. www.khdesign.co.uk/techniquesindex.htm

 Klinghoffer, O., 1995, In situ Monitoring of Reinforcement Corrosion by Means of Electrochemical Methods. Nordic Mini Seminar; Lund. http://www.germann.org/download/nordic_concrete_95.pdf

 Lamtenzan, D., Washer, G., and Lozev, M., 2000, Detection and Sizing of Cracks in Structural Steel using the Eddy Current Method. FHWA-RD-00-018, Federal Highways Administration. http://www.tfhrc.gov/hnr20/pubs/0018.pdf

 Measurement of Corrosion in Steel. www.khdesign.co.uk/bgb/concrete.htm

 Model 800- LPR Corrosion Rate Monitoring in Concrete. Rohrback Cosesco Systems, Inc., www.corrpro.com/rcs/datasheets/catalog/800.PDF

 Nazarian, S., and Diehl, J., 2000. Use of Geophysical Methods in Construction. Proceedings of GEO-DENVER 2000, American Society of Civil Engineers.

 Obtaining Effective Half Cell Potential Measurements in Reinforced Concrete Structures. http://www.nrc.ca/irc/ctus/18.html

 Reinforcement Electropotentials - Half Cell Potential Measurements. www.techno.users.netlink.co.uk/half1.html

 Tullmin, M, Hansson,C., Roberge,P., 1996. Electrochemical Techniques for Measuring Reinforcing Steel Corrosion. www.corrosionsource.com/events/intercorr/techsess/papers/session1/abstracts/tullmin.html

 Zdunek, A., Prine D., 1995. Early Detection of Steel Rebar Corrosion by Acoustic Emission Monitoring. Proceedings of Corrosion 1995 Conference, Paper 547. http://www.iti.northwestern.edu/publications/technical_reports/tr16.html

 Zero Resistance Ammetry. www.corrosion-club.com/zra.htm

 Concrete Condition 

ACI Committee 201, 1992. Guide for Making a Condition Survey of Concrete in Service. Publication ACI 201.1R-92. http://www.civil.uwaterloo.ca/soudki/222r-96.pdf

 ACI Committee 224, 1993. Causes, Evaluation and Repair of Cracks in Concrete Structures. Publication ACI 224.1R. http://www.civil.uwaterloo.ca/soudki/224-1r93.pdf,

 Advanced Geological Services Web site, Concrete Evaluation/Imaging Services. www.advancedgeo.com/concreteservices.html

 Branagan and Associates Inc. Nondestructive Testing Service for Assessing Cast-in-Place Concrete Columns. www.branagan.com/pdf_files/B&A_CSL%20Services.pdf,

 Cardimona, S, B. Willeford, D. Webb, J. Wenzlick, and N. Anderson. Ground Penetrating Radar Survey of Interstate 70 Across Missouri.

http://www.utc.umr.edu/Project/Completed/seq2.pdf

 Density of In Place Unhardened and Hardened Concrete by Nuclear methods. http://manuals.dot.state.tx.us:80/dynaweb/colmates/mtp/@Generic__BookTextView/107611;pt=107299

 Evaluation and Repair of Concrete Structures, 2002. Army Corps of Engineers Pub. 1110-2-2002. http://www.civil.uwaterloo.ca/soudki/em11110.pdf

 Forbis, J., 2001. Radiography for Building Renovation. The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc. www.asnt.org/publications/materialseval/basics/jun01basics/jun01basics.htm]

 Gannon, E. and Cady, P., 1992. Condition Evaluation of Concrete Bridges Relative to Reinforcement Corrosion. Strategic Highway Research Program; SHRP_S/FR-92-103. http://gulliver.trb.org/publications/shrp/SHRP-S-330.pdf

 High Energy X-Ray Radiography-Force Institute. www.force-institute.com/ciad/her.htm,

 Impact-echo Device Gives Quick, Reliable Information on Concrete Condition. Pub.  FHWA-SA-96-045 (CS048), 1996. www.fhwa.dot.gov/winter/roadsvr/CS048.htm

 Kim, W., Cardimona, S., and J. Lambert. Concrete Road Inspection Using Ground Penetrating Radar. www.utc.umr.edu/Project/Completed/Seq54.pdf

 Landis, E., Peterson, M. et al, 1994.  Developments in NDE of Concrete. Northwestern University Center for Advanced Cement-Based Materials. http://www.iti.northwestern.edu/publications/landis.html

 Liu, L. and Guo, T., 2000. Seismic Non-destructive Tests on Reinforced Concrete Column of the Longton Highway Bridge, Guangxi, China.  Proceedings of The First International Conference on the Application of Geophysical Methodologies and NDT to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure, St Louis, Missourihttp://www.modot.state.mo.us/g2000/PAPERS/CAT4/GEOPH23.PDF,

Neutron Radiography and Neutron and X-Ray Radiographs of a Concrete Core Sample Cross Section. www.osp.cornell.edu/vpr/ward/Nray.html

Non-destructive Testing Solutions for Roads and Bridges-Aggregates and Road Building. http://rocktoroad.com/non.html

Reinhart, H., 2001. Material Characterization of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete using Neutron CT, Ultrasound and Quantitative Acoustic Emission Techniques. University of Stuttgart, http://iwb.unistuttgart.de/grosse/papers/Nondestructive%20testing%20of%20steel%20fibre%20reinforced%20concrete.htm

Rosch, A. et al, 2002. Air Voids, Poor Compaction and Areas of Low Concrete Strength Detection by Pulse Velocity Measurement. Technische Universit├Ąt Berlin, http://beta.bv.tu-berlin.de/forsch/roesch/column.htm

Shaw, P., T. Petersen, 2000. High Energy Radiography Combined with the Agfa Strukturix DPS-Imaging System and Comparison with other NDE-methods for Inspection of Thick Reinforced Concrete Structures.  Proceedings of 2nd Intl Conference on NDE in Relation to Structural Integrity for Nuclear and Pressurized Components, New Orleans. http://www.ndt.net/article/v05n08/shaw/shaw.htm

Scour 

Evaluating Scour at Bridges. FWHA Pub. HI-96-031, Edition 3, 1995, http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/hec18SI.pdf

Dowding H.les et al. Time Domain Reflectometry Monitoring of Bridge Integrity and Performance. http://www.iti.northwestern.edu/publications/dowding/ndt.html

Dowding, C. and C. Pierce, 1994. Use of Time Domain Reflectometry to Detect Bridge Scour and Monitor Pier Movement. Northwestern University Center for Advanced Cement-Based Materials. http://www.iti.northwestern.edu/publications/dowding/dowding.html

Dowding, C. Geophysical Applications of Time-Domain Reflectometry. Northwestern University. http://iti.acns.nwu.edu/publications/dowding/book/chap1.pdf

Finno, R.J., and P.J. Prommer, 1994. Evaluation of Inaccessible Drilled Shafts Using the Granite Island Group, Introduction to TDR. www.tscm.freeservers.com/riprcop.html

Heinrichs, Thomas et al. Methodology and Estimates of Scour at Selected Bridge Site in Alaska. http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/wri/wri004151/pdf/WRIR00_4151.pdf

Impulse Response Method. www.iti.northwestern.edu/pubs/tr3.html

Kutrubes, D., and K. Maser, K., 1998. Use of GPR in 2D and 3D Imaging of Bridge Footings and Scour Studies. Proceedings of Symposium for the Applications of Geophysics to Environmental and Engineering Problems, March 1998, Chicago, IL, pp. 893-902.

Mercado, E., and J. McDonald, 2002. Two New Non-Destructive Methods to Measure Scour Depth and the Depth of Unknown Foundations.  Proceedings of Geophysics 2002, Los Angeles, CA.

O'Conner, K., C. Dowding, 2000. Real Time Monitoring of Infrastructure Using TDR Technology Principles.  Proceedings of The First International Conference on the Application of Geophysical Methodologies & NDT to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure, December 2000, St Louis, Missouri. www.modot.state.mo.us/g2000/PAPERS/CAT1/GEOPH28.PDF

Placzek, G. and Haeni. Surface-Geophysical Techniques used to Detect Existing and Infilled Scour Holes Near Bridge Piers. USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4009. http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/bgas/scour/

Webb J. D., and T. Newton, 2002. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR): A tool for Monitoring Bridge Scour.  Proceedingss from Geophysics 2002, Los Angeles, CA.

Webb, D., N. Anderson, et al, 2000. Bridge Scour: Application of Ground Penetrating Radar. Proceedings First International Conference on the Application of Geophysical Methodologies & NDT to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure. December 2000, St. Louis, MO.  www.modot.state.mo.us/g2000/PAPERS/CAT4/GEOPH48.PDF

Deck Stability

A Study of Wind Action on the Weirton-Steubenville Cable Stayed Bridge. Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Report BLWT-SS1-77, 1977.

A Study of Wind Effects for the Sunshine Skyway Bridge, Tampa, Florida - Concrete Alternate. Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Report, BLWT-SS24-82. (see also - Steel Alternate, BLWT-SS25-82).

Abdel-Ghaffar, A., S. Masri, R. Nigbor, A. Abouhashish, and A. Nazmy, 1996.  Issues on Structural Dynamic Monitoring, Integrity, and Control of Cable-Supported Bridges. Proceedings of  2nd International Workshop on Structural Control, Hong Kong.

 Design Procedures for Dynamically Loaded Structures (Ch. 10), Prentice-Hall Inc, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 1970.

 Diehl, J.G. and Ahmed Abdel-Ghaffar, 1985.  Analysis of the Dynamic characteristics of the Golden Gate Bridge by Ambient Vibration Measurements. Report No. 85-SM-1, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Priceton University.

 Diehl, J.G., and W.D. Iwan, 1992.  A Technical Review of Modern Strong Motion Accelerographs. Proceedings of 10th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Madrid, Spain.

 Nigbor, R., 1996.  State-of-the-Practice in Structural Monitoring. Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Structural Control, Hong Kong.

 Nigbor, R., 1999.  Some New Developments in Real-Time Monitoring of Civil Structures.  Proceedings of NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Strong Motion Instrumentation for Civil Engineering Structures, Istanbul.

 Nigbor, R., 2000.  Instrumentation Systems for Dynamic Monitoring of Bridges.  Proceedings of Workshop on Instrumental Diagnostics of Seismic Response of Bridges and Dams, UCB/PEER.

 Nigbor, R., 2000.  Practical Issues in Health Monitoring for Civil Structures.  Proceedings 2nd Workshop on Advanced Technologies in Urban Earthquake Disaster Mitigation, Kyoto, Japan.

 Nigbor, R., 2001.  Advanced Sensors for Building Monitoring. COSMOS Workshop on Strong Motion Instrumentation of Buildings, Oakland, CA.

 Nigbor, R., 2001.  New Developments in Health Monitoring for Civil Structures. in Strong Motion Instrumentation for Civil Engineering Structures, M. Erdik, ed., Kluwer, 2001.

Nigbor, R., and J. Swift, 2001.  Quality Assurance Issues with Geotechnical Databases. COSMOS Workshop on Geotechnical Databases, Richmond, CA.

 Nigbor, R., and O. Viengkhou, 2000.  OASIS - A Real-Time Monitoring System.  Proceedings of 17th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC17), Taipei.

 Nigbor, R., et al., 2001.  Feasibility of Detecting Known Structural Changes from Ambient Vibration Data.  Proceedings of 3rd International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, Stanford Univ.

 Nigbor, R.L. 1991.  Measurement Techniques for Structural Vibration Problems. Proceedings of ASCE So. Carolina Section Meeting, Columbia, SC.

 Nigbor, R.L., 1984.  Full-Scale Ambient Vibration Measurements of the Golden Gate Suspension Bridge - Instrumentation and Data Acquisition.  Proceedings of Eighth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, San Francisco.

 Nigbor, R.L., 1990.  Applied Seismic Instrumentation for Long-Span Bridges.  Proceedings of Second Workshop on Bridge Engineering Research in Progress, Reno.

 Nigbor, R.L., 1990.  Instrumentation Concepts for Post-Earthquake Assessment.  Proceedings of 6th U.S.-Japan Bridge Engineering Workshop, Lake Tahoe.

 Nigbor, R.L., 1991.  Dynamic Monitoring of Suspension Bridges.  Proceedings of International Workshop on Technology for Hong Kong's Infrastructure Development, Hong Kong.

 Nigbor, R.L., 1993.  Experimental Techniques for Structural Performance. ACI 1993 Convention, Vancouver, BC.

 Nigbor, R.L., 1995.  Seismic Refraction Maps Soil/Rock Layers. International Groundwater Technology.

 Nigbor, R.L., A. Cakmak, R. Mark, R., 1992.  Measured to the Max. Civil Engineering.

 Nigbor, R.L., J. Diehl, M. Higazy, 1996.  OASIS: A New Real-Time Structural Monitoring System.  Proceedings of 2nd International Conference in Civil Engineering on Computer Applications, Bahrain.

 Nigbor, R.L., J.G. Diehl, 1996.  Real-Time Remote Condition Monitoring of a Cable-Stayed Bridge in Bangkok, Thailand. 4th National Workshop on Bridge Research in Progress.

 Predicting Wind-Induced Response in Hurricane Zones. J. Str. Div., ASCE 1976.

Smyth, A., S. Masri, A. Abdel-Ghaffar, and Nigbor, R., 2000.  Development of a Nonlinear MultipInput/Multi-Output Model for the Vincent Thomas Bridge under Earthquake Excitations. Proc. 12WCEE, New Zealand.

 Vibration of Buildings - Guidelines for the Measurement of Vibrations and Evaluation of their Effects on Buildings, American National Standard Institute (ANSI) S2.47-1990 (R1997) http://webstore.ansi.org/ansidocstore/default.asp.

Wind Induced Response of Suspension Bridges - Wind Tunnel Model and Full Scale Observations, 1979. Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Wind Engineering, C.S.U., Fort Collins, Colorado.

Condition Evaluation

 Cardimona, S. 2000.  Ground Penetrating Radar.  Proceedings of Geophysics 2000-The First Annual Conference on the Application of Geophysical and NDT Methodologies to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure.  Missouri Department of Transportation-publishers, Jefferson, Missouri.

 Gucunski, N., S. Antoljak, and A. Maher, 2000.  Seismic Methods in Post Construction Condition Monitoring of Bridge Decks.  Use of Geophysical Methods in Construction, Geotechnical Special Publication No. 108, Soheil Nazarian and John Diehl, Editors,  Geo Institute, ASCE, pp. 35-51.

 Gucunski, N. G. Consolazio, and A. Maher, 2002. Concrete Bridge Deck Delamination Detection by Integrated Ultrasonic Methods.  American Concrete Institute (recently accepted for publication in an ACI Journal).

 Gucunski, N., and A. Maher, 1998.  Bridge Deck Condition Monitoring by Impact Echo Method. Proceedings of International Conference MATEST '98 - Life Extension, Brijuni, Croatia, October 1-2, 1998, pp. 39-45.

 Hickman, S., and S. Cardimona, 2000.  Ground Penetrating Radar Survey of Interstate 70 Across Missouri.  Proceedings of Geophysics 2000- The First Annual Conference on the Application of Geophysical and NDT Methodologies to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure, Missouri Department of Transportation-publishers, Jefferson, M issouri, 2001.

 Maser, K. R., 2002.  Use of Ground Penetrating Radar Data for Rehabilitation of Composite Pavements on High Volume Roads.  Proceedings of Pavement Evaluation 2002, Roanoake, VA.

 Maser, K. R.; T. Holland, R. L. Roberts, J. Popovics, and A. Heinz, 2003.  Technology for Quality Assurance of New Pavement Thickness. TRB-Paper #03-3850, Transportation Research Board.

 Nazarian, S., and D. Yuan, 1997.  Evaluation and Improvement of Seismic Pavement Analyzer. Research Project 7-2936, The Center for Highway Materials Research, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX.

 Perkins, A. D., J. J. Amrol, F. A. Romero, R. L. Roberts, 2000.  DOT Specification Development Based on Evaluation of Ground-Penetrating Radar System Performance in Measuring Concrete Cover (Reinforcement Depth) on New Bridge Deck Construction.  Proceedings of Structural Materials Technology IV:  An NDT Conference, Feb. 28 - Mar. 3, 2000, Technomic Publishing Company, Inc., pp. 53 - 60. 

 Roberts, G. E.. and J. J. Amrol, 1999.  Concrete Cover Determination Using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR).  United States Department of Transportation (Federal Highway Administration-FHWA) Priority Technology Program, Project No. NH1997-01, State of New Hampshire Department of Transportation, Bureau of Materials & Research Final Report.

 Roberts, R., 2000.  Effect of Antenna-Surface Distance on the Radiation of a GPR Antenna. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on GPR, Gold Coast Australia, Noon, D., Stickley, G., and Longstaff, D., Editors, SPIE Vol. 4084, p. 702-707.

 Roberts, R., and D. Cist, 2002.  Enhanced Target Imaging in 3D Using GPR Data from Orthogonal Profile Lines.  Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on GPR, April 29-May 2, 2002, Santa Barbara, CA., Koppenjan and Lee Editors., SPIE Vol. 4758, p. 256-261.

 Roberts, R. L., F. A. Romero, 1998.  High-Resolution GPR Bridge Deck Evaluation Surveys. Proceedings of the International Conference on Corrosion and Rehabilitation of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Dec. 7-11, 1998, FHWA-SA-99-014.

 Romero, F. A., D. Allen, R. L. Roberts, and J. Fleckenstein, 2000.  Ground-Penetrating Radar Investigation of an Interstate Concrete Pavement for Evidence of Segregation Caused by Poor Consolidation During Construction.  Proceedings of Geophysics 2000- The First Annual Conference on the Application of Geophysical and NDT Methodologies to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure, Paper 4-21, Dec. 2000, Missouri Department of Transportation, publishers, Jefferson, Missouri.

 Romero, F. A., G. E. Roberts, and R. L. Roberts, 2000.  Evaluation of GPR Bridge Deck Survey Results Used for Delineation of Removal/Maintenance Quantity Boundaries on Asphalt-Overlaid, Reinforced Concrete Deck.  Proceedings of 2000 Structural Materials Technology IV:  An NDT Conference, Technomic Publishing Company, Inc., Feb. 28-Mar. 3, 2000, Atlantic City, NJ, pp. 23 - 30.

 Romero, F. A., and R. L. Roberts, 2002.  Mapping Concrete Deterioration:  High-Speed Ground Penetrating Radar Surveys on Bridge Decks Using New Analysis Method Based on Dual-Polarization Deployment of Horn Antennae.  Proceedings of the 2002 International Bridge Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, June 10-12, 2002, Paper IBC-02-12.

 Romero, F. A., and R. L. Roberts, 2002.  The Evolution in High-Resolution Ground Penetrating Radar Surveys from Ground-Coupled to High-Speed, Air-Coupled Evaluations.  Proceedings of the Structural Materials Technology V: An NDT Conference, Cincinnati, OH.

 Saarenketo, T. 1997.  Using Ground Penetrating Radar and Dielectric Probe Measurements in Pavement Density Quality Control.  Transportation Research Record, pp. 34-41.

 Saarenketo, T., and P. Roimela, 1998.  Ground Penetrating Radar Technique in Asphalt Pavement Density Quality Control.  Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, Lawrence, KS. Volume 2, pp. 461-466.

 Saarenketo, T., and T. Scullion, 2002.  Implementation of Ground Penetrating Radar Technology in Asphalt Pavement Testing.  Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Asphalt Pavements, International Society for Asphalt Pavements (ISAP), Kopenhagen, Denmark.

 Saarenketo, T., and T. Scullion, 2000Road Evaluation with Ground Penetrating Radar.  Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 43, pp. 119 -138.

 Scullion, T., T. Saarenketo, 1998.  Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar Technology for Network and Project Level Pavement Management Survey Systems.  Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Managing Pavements, Durban, South Africa.

 Wenzlick, J. D., S. Cardimona, 2000.  Investigation of Bridge Decks Utilizing Ground Penetrating Radar. Proceedings of Geophysics 2000- The First Annual Conference on the Application of Geophysical and NDT Methodologies to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure.  St. Louis, Missouri.

Pavement, Condition Evaluation

Evaluation of Ground-Penetrating Radar and Infrared Thermography Prepared by Materials and Research Division of Highways, Delaware Department of Transportation, for Federal Highway Administration Experimental Project No. 11, FHWA-EP-11-002, May 1989

Baker, M.R., Crain, K., and Nazarian, S., 1995. Determination of Pavement Thickness with a New Ultrasonic Device, Research Report 1966-1, Center for Highway Materials Research, The University of Texas as El Paso.
Barnes, Christopher. L.;Trottier, Jean-Francois. 2003. "Effectiveness of GPR in Predicting Deck Repair Quantities", ASCE Journal of Infrastructure Systems (accepted; submitted in December 2002 for peer review prior to publication).
Cardimona, Steve. 2000. Ground Penetrating Radar, Geophysics 2000- The First Annual Conference on the Application of Geophysical and NDT Methodologies to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure, St. Louis, Missouri.

Chung, T and C.R. Carter, Pavement Determination and Detection of Pavement Cavities Using Radar, Ontario Ministry of Transportation, Research & Development Branch Project 21187, MAT-91-03, Downsview, Ontario, Canada.

Geomedia Research and Development. Company Web Site: www.Geomedia.US

German Instruments A/S. Company Web Site. www.germann.org

Hauser, E.C., and Howell, M.J., 2002. Ground Penetrating Radar Survey to Evaluate Roadway Collapse in Northen Ohio. 2001 Symposium on Application of Geophysics to Environmental and Engineering Problems (SAGEEP), 2001 CD Publication RBA-2, 7p.

Hickman, Shane; Cardimona, Steve, 2000. Ground Penetrating Radar Survey of Interstate 70 Across Missouri. Geophysics 2000- The First Annual Conference on the Application of Geophysical and NDT Methodologies to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure, December 2000, Missouri Department of Transportation-publishers, Jefferson, Missouri.

Impact-Echo Instruments, LLC. Company Web Site: www. Impact-echo.com

Mary J. Sansalone and William B. Streett,1997. Impact-Echo: Nondestructive Evaluation of Concrete and Masonry, Bullbrier Press, 339 pp.
Maser, K. Radar Pavement Thickness Evaluation: Case Studies at 13 WES Sites:, report prepared for the US Army Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss., December 1991
Maser, K. Use of Radar Technology for Pavement Layer Evaluation. Report 930-5F, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX February 1991

Maser, Kenneth R. 2002. Use of Ground Penetrating Radar Data for Rehabilitation of Composite Pavements on High Volume Roads. Conference Proceedings-Pavement Evaluation 2002, Roanoake, VA.
Maser, Kenneth R.; Bernhardt, M. 2000. Statewide Bridge Deck Survey Using Ground Penetrating Radar. 2000 Structural Materials Technology IV: An NDT Conference, Technomic Publishing Company, Inc., Atlantic City, New Jersey, pp. 23 - 30.

Maser, Kenneth R.; Holland, T. Joe; Roberts, Roger L.; Popovics, John; Heinz, Ariadna. 2003. "Technology for Quality Assurance of New Pavement Thickness", TRB-Paper #03-3850, Transportation Research Board.

Nazarian, S., Baker, M.R., and Crain, K., 1997. Assessing Quality of Concrete with Wave Propagation Techniques. Materials Journal, American Concrete Institute, Vol. 94, No. 4, Farmington Hills, MI, pp 296-306.

Nazarian, S., Yuan, D., and Baker, M.R., 1995. Rapid Determination of Pavement Moduli with Spectral-Analysis-of-Surface-Waves Method. Research Report 1243-1, Center for Highway Materials Research, The University of Texas as El Paso.

Olson Instruments, Inc. Company Web Site: www.olsoninstruments.com
Research Report 4188-2

Roberts, Roger L., Romero; Francisco A. 1998. High Resolution GPR Bridge Deck Evaluation Surveys. Highway Applications of Engineering Geophysics with an Emphasis on Previously Mined Ground, pp. 249 - 54. Missouri Department of Transportation-publishers, Jefferson City, Missouri.

Roddis, W.M., Maser, K., and Gisi, A., 1992 Radar Pavement Thickness Evaluations for Varying Base Conditions. TRB-Paper #92-0682, Transportation Research Board, January.

Romero, Francisco A., Allen, David, Roberts, Roger L., Fleckenstein, John. 2000. Ground-Penetrating Radar Investigation of an Interstate Concrete Pavement for Evidence of Segregation Caused by Poor Consolidation During Construction. Geophysics 2000- The First Annual Conference on the Application of Geophysical and NDT Methodologies to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure, Paper 4-21, St. Louis, Missouri.

Romero, Francisco A.; Roberts, Glenn E.; Roberts, Roger L. 2000. Evaluation of GPR Bridge Deck Survey Results Used for Delineation of Removal/Maintenance Quantity Boundaries on Asphalt-Overlaid, Reinforced Concrete Deck. 2000 Structural Materials Technology IV: An NDT Conference, Technomic Publishing Company, Inc., Atlantic City, New Jersey, pp. 23 - 30.

Romero, Francisco A.; Roberts, Roger L. 2002. Mapping Concrete Deterioration: High-Speed Ground Penetrating Radar Surveys on Bridge Decks Using New Analysis Method Based on Dual-Polarization Deployment of Horn Antennae, 2002. International Bridge Conference Paper IBC-02-12, Proceedings International Bridge Conference, Pittsburgh, PA.

Romero, Francisco A.; Roberts, Roger L. 2002. The Evolution in High-Resolution Ground Penetrating Radar Surveys from Ground-Coupled to High-Speed, Air-Coupled Evaluations. Proceedings from Structural Materials Technology V: An NDT Conference, Cincinnati, OH.
Saarenketo, Timo 1997. Using Ground Penetrating Radar and Dielectric Probe Measurements in Pavement Density Quality Control. Transportation Research Record. pp. 34-41.

Saarenketo, Timo,. 1997. Using Ground Penetrating Radar and Dielectric Probe Measurements in Pavement Density Quality Control. Transportation Research Record. pp. 34-41.

Saarenketo, Timo; Roimela, Petri, 1998. Ground Penetrating Radar Technique in Asphalt Pavement Density Quality Control. Proceedings from Seventh International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, Lawrence, Kansas. Volume 2, pp. 461-466.

Saarenketo, Timo; Scullion, Tom 2002. "Implementation of Ground Penetrating Radar Technology in Asphalt Pavement Testing", Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Asphalt Pavements, International Society for Asphalt Pavements (ISAP), Kopenhagen, Denmark.

Saarenketo, Timo; Scullion, Tom, 2000. Road Evaluation with Ground Penetrating Radar. Journal of Applied Geophysics 43 119 -138.
Sansalone, M., Carino, N.J., 1986, Impact Echo: A Method for Flaw Detection in Concrete Using Transient Stress Waves, NBSIR 86-3452, National Technical Information Service, Springfield.

Scullion, Tom; Saarenketo, Timo. 1998. Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar Technology for Network and Project Level Pavement Management Survey Systems. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Managing Pavements, Durban, South Africa.

Wenzlick, John D; Cardimona, Steve. 2000. Investigation of Bridge Decks Utilizing Ground Penetrating Radar. Geophysics 2000- The First Annual Conference on the Application of Geophysical and NDT Methodologies to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure, St. Louis, Missouri.

Yuan, Deren, Nazarian, Soheil and Medichetti, Anitha, 2002, A Methodology for Optimizing Opening of PCC Pavements to Traffic, Texas Department of Transportation

Transporation/Geotechical Methods

Drnevich, V.P., Yu, X., and Lovell, J., 2003. Time Domain Reflectometry for Water Content and Density of Soils: Test Procedures and Typical Results. TRB 2003 Annual Meeting CD-ROM.

Evaluation of Ground-Penetrating Radar and Infrared Thermography.  Prepared by Materials and Research Division of Highways, Delaware Department of Transportation, for Federal Highway Administration Experimental Project No. 11, FHWA-EP-11-002,  May 1989.

Hanna, K., and Haramy, K, 2000.  Y2K Ground Imaging Technology for Geotechnical Performance Evaluation Proceedings.  Amherst 2K Conference, Amherst, Massachusetts.

Kaya, A. 2002 Evaluation of Soil Porosity Using a Low MHz Range Dielectric Constant. Turkish Journal of Engineering Environmental Science. Vol. 26. No. 301-307.

Lenke, L. R., McKeen, R. G., and Grush, M. P. 2003.  Laboratory Evaluation of the GeoGauge for Compaction Control. TRB 2003 Annual Meeting CD-ROM.

Lin, C.-P., Drnevich, V. P., Feng, W., and Deschamps, R. J. 2000.  Time Domain Reflectometry for Compaction Quality Control. Use of Geophysical Methods in Construction, Edited by S. Nazarian and J. Diehl. Geophysical Special Publication 108. ASCE Press. pp. 15-34.

Look, B. G. and Reeves, I. N. (1992).  The Application of Time Domain Reflectometry in Geotechnical Instrumentation. Geotechnical Testing Journal. Vol. 15. No. 3. pp. 277-283.

Ooi, P. S. K and Pu, J. (2003). Use of Stiffness for Evaluating Compactness of Cohesive Pavement Geomaterials.  TRB 2003 Annual Meeting CD-ROM.

Romero, P. 2000. Laboratory Evaluation of the PQI-Model 300.  Report to FHWA as part of Pooled-Fund Study.

Sebesta, S. and Scullion. T. 2003.  Application of Infrared Imaging and Ground-Penetrating Radar for Detecting Segregation in Hot-Mix Asphalt Overlays.  TRB 2003 Annual Meeting CD-ROM.

Siddiqui, S. I., Drnevish, V. P., and Deschamps, R. J. 2000.  Time Domain Reflectometry Development for Use in Geotechnical Engineering.  Geotechnical Testing Journal. Vol. 23. No. 1. pp. 9-20. 

Topp, G. C., Davis, J. L., and Annan, A. P. 1980.  Electromagnetic Determination of Soil Water Content: Measurements in Coaxial Transmission Lines.  Water Resources Journal.  Vol. 16. No. 3. pp. 574-582.

Troxler 2003.  Company Web Site.  http://www.troxlerlabs.com.

TransTeck (2003). Company Web Site. http://www.transtechsys.com. Corporate Headquarters. 1594 State Street. Schenectady, NY 12304.

Voids

Adams, G., N. Anderson, J. Baker, M. Shoemaker, A. Shaw, and A. Hatheway, A., 1998.  GPR and High Resolution Reflection Seismic Used to Map Subsidence under HW 44, Missouri.  Proceedings of SAGEEP '98, Chicago, IL.

 Anderson, N., G. Adams, G. Goesmann, T. Newton, A. Hatheway, and S. Cardimona, 1997. Ground-Penetrating Radar and Shallow Reflection Seismic Study of Karstic Damage to I-44 Embankment, West Springfield Area, Missouri. www.utc.umr.edu/Project/Completed/Seq50.pdf

 Army Corps of Engineers.  Difficult Problems Require Geophysical Solutions. http://geoscience.wes.army.mil/GeophysicalSolutions.PDF

 Earth Resources Laboratory. Environmental Applications.  http://www-eaps.mit.edu/erl/research/environment.html

 Geo Model Web Site.  Sinkhole and Subsidence. www.groundpenetratingradar.com/sinkholes

Geo-Radar and No-Dig Technologies-Some Applications.   www.malags.se/case/Geo_Radar_and_NoDig_Technologies.pdf

 Gucunski, N., V. Krstic, and A. Maher, 1997.  Field Implementation of the Surface Waves for Obstacle Detection (SWOD) Method. www.ndt.net/article/wcndt00/papers/idn097/idn097.htm

 Haeni, F.P., 2002.  Detection and Mapping of Fractures and Cavities Using Borehole Radar. Fractured Rock. www.water.usgs.gov/ogw/bgas/publications/FracRock02_haeni/FracRock02_haeni.pdf,

 Hanna, K., Strid, J., and Hanson, D., 2001.  Imaging Old Mine Works.  Proceedings of National Association of Abandoned Mine Land Programs, Athens, Ohio.

Keele University Web Site.  Microgravity Surveying.  www.esci.keele.ac.uk/geophysics/html/microgravity_surveying.html

 Microgravity Survey for Cavity Detection. www.oyo.co.jp/english/geo_e/mgcavity/mgcavity.html

 Miller, R.D., J. Xia, 2002.  High Resolution Seismic Reflection Investigation of a Subsidence Feature on HW50, Kansas.  Proceedings of SAGEEP '02, Las Vegas, NV.

 Munk, J., and R. A. Sheets, 1997.  Detection of Underground Voids in Ohio by Use of Geophysical Methods.  USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4221.  http://www-oh.er.gov/reports/Abstracts/wrir.97-4221.html

 Park, C., R. Miller, et al., 2000.  Multichannel Seismic Surface Wave Methods for Geotechnical Applications. Proceedings First International Conference on the Application of Geophysical Methodologies & NDT to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure. www.modot.state.mo.us/g2000/PAPERS/CAT4/GEOPH4.PDF

 Phillips, C., G. Casante, D. Hutchinson, 2002.  The Innovative Use of Seismic Surface Waves for Void Detection and Material Characterization.  Proceedings of SAGEEP '02, Las Vegas, NV. Potential Field Techniques.  www.geophysics.co.uk/mets4.html

 Pyrak-Nolte, L., 2002.  Seismic Imaging of Fractured Media. http://www.liv.ac.uk/seismic/news/narms/fulltextpyrak.pdf

Road Radar and Micro-Seismic Surveys. www.geophysicsgpr.com/Qualification/road_4.htm

 Rosch, A. et al., 2002.  Air Voids, Poor Compaction and Areas of Low Concrete Strength Detection by Pulse Velocity Measurement. Technische Universit├Ąt Berlin. http://beta.bv.tu-berlin.de/forsch/roesch/column.htm

 Roubal, M., 2000.  Evaluating & Locating Engineering Structures Using Non-destructive Testing Technology.  Proceedings First International Conference on the Application of Geophysical Methodologies & NDT to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure. www.modot.state.mo.us/g2000/PAPERS/CAT2/GEOPH51.PDF

 Shear Waves-Techniques and Systems.  www.georentals.co.uk/Shearwaves.pdf

Shoemaker, M., N. Anderson, J. Baker, A.  Hatheway, M. Roark, T. Newton, S. Cardimona, and S. Oppert, 1998.  High Resolution Seismic Reflection Survey of Abandoned Mines along a Proposed Interstate Route, Missouri. Proceedings of SAGEEP '98, Chicago, IL.

 Stahl, B. A., J. L. Leberfinger, and J. J. Warren.  Electrical Imaging: a Method for Identifying Potential Collapse and Other Karst Features Near Roadways.  www.quality-geophysic.com-50th1.pdf

 Technos Inc. Web Site.  Surface Geophysics. www.technos-inc.com/Surface.html

 Terradat Geophysical.  Ground Penetrating Radar Surveying. www.terradat.co.uk/gpr.html

 The MicroVib.  www.baygeo.com/html/the_micovib.html

 Void and Utility Detection.  http://optimsoftware.com/studies/geotechnical/void

Wolfe, P.J., B. H. Rid, E. C. Hauser, and J. D. Hicks, 2000.  Identifying Potential Collapse Zones under Highways.  Proceedings of SAGEEP '00, Arlington, VA.

 Clay Content

Dalgaard, M., H. Nehmdahl, and H. Have.  Soil Clay Mapping from Measurements of Electromagnetic Conductivity.  KVL Precision Farming. http://www.cpf.kvl.dk/posters/EM38poster.pdf

 Morrison, F., and J. Yang.  Near Surface Mapping of Induced Polarization. http://appliedgeophysics.berkeley.edu:7057/geoengineering/appliedgeophysics/research/nearsurfaceIP.html

 Palacky, C., 1987.  Clay Mapping using Electromagnetic methods.  First Break, Vol 5, No. 8, August 1987, pp. 295-306.

 Slater, L., and D. Lesmes, 2000.  The Induced Polarization Method.  Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Application of Geophysical Methodologies & NDT to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure. www.modot.state.mo.us/g2000/PAPERS/CAT1/GEOPH10.PDF

Roadbed Clay

Pfeiffer, J., 2001.  EM Survey over Road to Detect the Presence of Clays.  Blackhawk GeoServices Report.

 Slater, L., and D. Lesmes, 2000.  The Induced Polarization Method.  Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Application of Geophysical Methodologies & NDT to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure. www.modot.state.mo.us/g2000/PAPERS/CAT1/GEOPH10.PDF

 Bedrock Depth/Structure/Fractures For Materials Source Areas And Foundations

Barker, R.D., 2001.  Imaging fractures in hardrock terrain. http://www.earthsciences.bham.ac.uk/downloads/Resnote2.pdf

FHWA Web Site.  Proper Use of Surface Geophysical Equipment. www.fhwa.dot.gov/programadmin/equip.htm

Fugro Airborne Surveys Web Site.  Airborne Magnetics Used to Map Bedrock Structure. http://www.fugroairborne.com/ProductsServices/airborne/oilandgas.shtml

Gettings, M., and B. Houser.  Depth to Bedrock in the Upper San Pedro Valley, Cochise County, Southeastern Arizona.  http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of00-138/

Hager, J. L., and M. C. Hager, M.C.  GPR as a Cost Effective Bedrock Mapping Tool for Large Areas.  http://www.hagergeoscience.com/pdf_files/gpr.pdf

Hayward, C., and T. Goforth, "Seismic Reflection Investigations of a Bedrock Surface Buried under Alluvium.  http://geology.heroy.smu.edu/~hayward/Acrobat/Brazos.pdf

Hickman, S. et al., 2000.  Geophysical Site Characterization in Support of Highway Expansion Project.  International Conference on the Application of Geophysical Technologies to Planning, Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Transportation Facilities, St. Louis, MO. www.utc.umr.edu/Publications/Proceedings/2000/Geophysical_Site_Characterization.pdf

Kick, J.  Depth of Bedrock Using Gravimetry. http://www.science.ubc.ca/~eoswr/geop/appgeop/gravity/gravmc1.html

Met Geophysics Web Site.  Bedrock Profiling Using Resistivity and GPR. http://www.metgeo.com/cases/bedrock.htm

Naeva Geophysics Inc. Web Site. Seismic Reflection and Refraction Used for Bedrock Imaging.  http://www.naevageophysics.com/seismics.html

Pinelli, G, et.al., 1999. A Dedicated Radar System for Preliminary No-Dig Investigation.  http://georadar.ids-spa.it/download/papers/no_dig_conf_99.pdf

Roubal, M., 2000.  Evaluating & Locating Engineering Structures Using Non-destructive Testing Technology.  Proceedings First International Conference on the Application of Geophysical Methodologies & NDT to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure.  www.modot.state.mo.us/g2000/PAPERS/CAT2/GEOPH51.PDF

Sterling, R.  Utility Locating Technologies: A Summary of Responses to a Statement of Need.  Distributed by the Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer. http:// flc2.federallabs.org/utilities/Presentations/Utility_Locating_Technologies_Report.pdf

Fractures and Weak Zones

Advanced Geosciences Inc.  2-D Resistivity Structure. http://www.agiusa.com/tunnel.shtml,

Advanced Geosciences Inc. Web Site.  2-D Resistivity Mapping. http://www.agiusa.com/sections.shtml

Barker, R., 2001.  Imaging Fractures in Hardrock Terrain. http://www.earthsciences.bham.ac.uk/downloads/Resnote2.pdf

Cosma, C., and N. Enescu, 2002.  Multi-azimuth VSP Methods for Fractured Rock Characterization.  Proceedings of he 5th International Workshop on the Application of Geophysics in Rock Engineering, Toronto, Canada http://www.liv.ac.uk/seismic/news/narms/fulltextcosma.pdf

Crampin, S., J. Queen, and W. Rizer.  The Need for Underground Research Laboratories in Sedimentary Basins NS2.1, Near-Surface Seismic Reflection Studies. http://www.eap.bgs.ac.uk/PUBLICATIONS/ABSTRACTS/SEG93/s1993scjq.pdf

Goupil, F.  New in Geophysics.  Tunnel Canada Web Site. http://www.tunnelcanada.ca/News/1998_12/geophysi.htm

Haeni, F., et al., 2002.  Detection and Mapping of Fractures and Cavities Using Borehole Radar.  Fractured Rock. water.usgs.gov/ogw/bgas/publications/FracRock02_haeni/FracRock02_haeni.pdf

Haeni, F.P., L. Halleux, C. Johnson, J. Lane.  Detection and Mapping of Fractures and Cavities Using Borehole Radar. USGS Web Site. http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/bgas/publications/FrcRock02_haeni/

Leberfinger, J., 2000.  Three Dimensional Electrical Imaging.  Proceedings First International Conference on the Application of Geophysical Methodologies & NDT to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure. www.modot.state.mo.us/g2000/PAPERS/CAT4/GEOPH41.PDF

Rock Quality Assessment Using Borehole Seismic. http://www.kolumbus.fi/vibrometric/page10.htm

Rock Solid Images Web Site.  Seismic Fracture Detection, Exploiting the Range of Seismic Signatures.  http://www.rocksolidimages.com/pdf/fracture_detection.pdf

Singha, K., et al., 2000.  Borehole Radar Methods: Tools for Characterization of Fractured Rock.  EPA Fact Sheet 054-00. www.water.usgs.gov/ogw/bgas/publications/FS-054-00/FS-054-00.pdf

http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/bgas/outcrop/

Lithology

Advanced Geosciences, Inc.  Resistivity Imaging.  http://www.agiusa.com/sections.shtml,

Bayless, E., D. Westjohn, and L. Watson.  Use of Surface and Borehole Geophysics to Delineate the Glacial-drift Stratigraphy of Northeastern St. Joseph County, Indiana. U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4041. http://in.water.usgs.gov/newreports/baylessbh/baylessbh.pdf

Cardimona, S., D. Webb, and T. Lippincott, 2000.  Ground Penetrating Radar": Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Application of Geophysical Methodologies & NDT to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure. www.modot.state.mo.us/g2000/PAPERS/CAT1/GEOPH17.PDF

Clark, R., G. Swayze, and A. Gallaher, A.  Mapping the Mineralogy and Lithology of Canyonlands, Utah with Imaging Spectrometer Data and Multiple Spectral Feature Mapping Algorithm.  USGS Web Site. http://speclab.cr.usgs.gov/PAPERS.arches.92/arches.geology.92.html

Ellefsen, K., J. Lucius, and D. Fitterman.  TEM and DC Resistivity.  USGS Web Site. http://rockyweb.cr.usgs.gov/frontrange/aggregate/geophysics/geophysics.htm

Fugro Airborne Surveys.  DIGHEM Airborne Resistivity Mapping of Sand and Gravel. http://www.fugroairborne.com/CaseStudies/t_sand.shtml

Kilner, M., L. West, and T. Murray.  Identifying Spatial Variability in Glacial Sediment Using Electrical Methods.  http://www.esci.keele.ac.uk/gisse/Kilner-etal.pdf

Natural Resources Canada. Induced Polarization. http://borehole.gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/ip_e.htm,

Slater,L., and D. Lesmes, 2000.  The Induced Polarization Method.  Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Application of Geophysical Methodologies & NDT to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure. www.modot.state.mo.us/g2000/PAPERS/CAT1/GEOPH10.PDF

Applied Geophysics for Groundwater Studies.http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/~www_sgg/personal/crblink/web/GWATER1.pdf

Bernard, J., 1997.  The Proton Magnetic Resonance Method for Groundwater Investigations.  IRIS web manual.

Butler, K., R. Russell, A. Kepic, and M. Maxwell, M., 1996.  Measurement of the Seismoelectric Response from a Shallow Boundary.  Geophysics, Vol. 61, No. 06, pp. 1769-1778.

Connor, C., S. Sandberg, R. Green, and D. Farrell.  Transient Electromagnetic Mapping and Monitoring of the Edwards Aquifer. 20-9212. http://www.swri.edu/3pubs/IRD2001/20-9212.htm

GEO ENG Web Site.  Groundwater Geophysics Solutions. http://www.geo-eng.com.au/mine_resource/download/Geo-Eng_gwater_geophys_brochure2.pdf

Goldman, G., M. Rabinovich, and I. Rabinovich, 1996.  Detection of the Water Level in Fractured Phreatic Aquifers Using NMR Geophysical Measurements.  Journal of Applied Geophysics.

Goldman, M., B. Rabinovich, M. Rabinovich, D. Gilad, I. Gev, and M. Schirov, 1994. Application of the Integrated NMR-TDEM Method in Groundwater Exploration in Israel. Journal of Applied Geophysics.

Groundwater Surface and Flow

Haartsen, M., Z. Zhu, and M. Toksoz, 1995.  Seismoelectric Experimental Data and Modeling in Porous Layer Models at Ultrasonic Frequencies. Annual Meeting Abstracts, Society Of Exploration Geophysicists, pp. 696-699.

Hatch, M., B. Barrett B. et al.  Improved Near Surface Mapping in Groundwater Studies: Application of Fast-sampling Time-domain EM Survey Methods. http://www.aseg.org.au/publications/full/Prev96-pp25-29.pdf

Kindij, E., 1960.  Discussion of the Electroseismic Effect by Martner, S. T., et al.  GEO-24-02-0297-0308, Geophysics, 25, No. 01, p. 325.

Legchenko, A., 1996.  Some Aspects of the Performance of the Surface NMR Method. SEG, Denver.

Legchenko, A., 1996. "A Practical Accuracy of the Surface NMR Measurements. EAGE, Amsterdam.

Legchenko, A., A. Beauce, A. Guillen, P. Valla, and J. Bernard, J, 1996.  Capability of the NMR Applied to Aquifers Investigation from the Surface.  EEGS, Nantes.

Legchenko, A., A. Beauce, P. Valla, J. Bernard, and G. Pierrat, 1997.  Development of a Proton Magnetic Resonance Equipment for Groundwater Investigations.  High Resolution Geophysics.

Legchenko, A., O. Shushakov, J. Perrin, and A. Portselan, 1995.  Non-invasive NMR Study of Subsurface Aquifers in France.  SEG, Houston, Texas.

Lieblich, D., A. Legchenko, F. Haeni, and A. Portselan, 1994.  Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiments to Detect Subsurface Water at Haddam Meadows, Connecticut. SAGEEP, Boston, Massachusetts.

Long, L., and W. Rivers, 1975.  Field Measurement of the Electroseismic Response. Geophysics, 40, No. 02, pp. 233-245.

Martner, S., and N. Sparks, 1959.  The Electroseismic Effect. Geophysics, 24, No. 02, pp. 297-308. (* Discussion in GEO-25-01-0325-0325)

Mikhailov, O., J. Queen, and N. Toksoz, 1997a.  Using Borehole Electroseismic Measurements to Detect and acterize Fractured (Permeable) Zones.  Annual Meeting Abstracts, Society Of Exploration Geophysicists, pp. 1981-1984.

Mikhailov, O., M. Haartsen, and M. Toksoz, 1997b.  Electroseismic Investigation of the Shallow Subsurface: Field Measurements and Numerical Modeling.  Geophysics, 62, No. 01, pp. 97-105.

Millar, J, and R. Clarke.  Electrokinetic Techniques for Measurement of Rock Permeability. Company Brochure from GroundFlow Ltd.

Murthy, Y., 1985.  First Results on the Direct Detection of Groundwater by Seismoelectric Effect - A Field Experiment.  ASEG 13th Geophysical Conference, Australian Society Of Exploration Geophysicists, 16, pp. 254-256.

Pride, S., and Morgan, F., 1991.  Electrokinetic Dissipation Induced by Seismic Waves. Geophysics, 56, No. 07, pp. 914-925.

Pride, S., and W. Haartsen, 1993.  Modelling Electroseismic Wave Phenomena in Layered Media.  61st Meeting. European Association of Exploration Geophysicists, Extended Abstracts, European Association Of Geophysical Exploration, Session:D017.

Pride, S., T. Madden, and N. Toksoz, 1992.  Theoretical Modeling of the Electroseismic Effect.  61st Meeting European Association of Exploration Geophysicists, Extended Abstracts, European Association Of Geophysical Exploration, pp. 348-349.

Ramboll Web Site.  New Seismic Method for Mapping of Groundwater. http://www.ramboll.dk/other/uk/geotechnology/pulled_array_seismic.htm

Russell, R., K. Butler, A, Kepic, and M. Maxwell, M., 1997.  Seismoelectric Exploration. The Leading Edge, 16, No. 11, pp. 1611-1615.

Schirov, M., and A. Legchenko, 1991.  A New Direct Non-invasive Groundwater Detection Technology for Australia.  Exploration Geophysics.

Shankar, R.  Groundwater Exploration.  20th WEDC Conference. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/cv/wedc/papers/20/sessiong/ravi.pdf

Shushakov, O., 1996.  Groundwater NMR in Conductive Water.  Geophysics.

Sorensen, K.,  E. Auken, and P. Thomsen.  TDEM in Groundwater Mapping - A Continuous Approach. http://www.geofysiksamarbejdet.au.dk/media/soerensen2000c.pdf

Thompson, A., and G. Gist, 1991.  Electroseismic Prospecting.  Annual Meeting Abstracts, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, pp. 425-427.

Thompson, A., and G. Gist, 1993.  Geophysical Applications of Electrokinetic Conversion.  The Leading Edge, 12, No. 12, pp. 1169-1173.

Trinks, I., D. Wachsmuth, and H. Stumpel.  Monitoring Water Flow in the Unsaturated Zone Using Georadar.  First Break.  Vol. 19, December 12, 2001. http://www.geo.cornell.edu/eas/education/course/descr/EAS101/PaperDownloads4/MapWaterflowGPR.pdf

Trushkin, D., O. Shushakov, and A. Legchenko, 1994.  The Potential of a Noise-reducing Antenna for Surface NMR Groundwater Surveys in the Earth's Magnetic Field. Geophysical Prospecting.

Trushkin, D., O. Shushakov, and A. Legchenko, 1995.  Surface NMR Applied to an Electroconductive Medium.  Geophysical Prospecting.

University of New South Wales.  Geophysical Methods (Electrical) in Groundwater Investigation.  http://www.wrl.unsw.edu.au/groundwater/research/electrical.html

Van Overmeeren, R., 1981.  A Combination of Electrical Resistivity, Seismic Refraction, and Gravity Measurements for Groundwater Exploration in Sudan.  Geophysics, Vol 46, # 9, pg 1304-1313.  http://www.science.ubc.ca/~eoswr/geop/appgeop/stucases/instruct/vano.html

Zhu, Z.,  and D. Toksoz, 1999.  Seismoelectric and Seismomagnetic Measurements in Fractured Borehole Models.  Annual Meeting Abstracts, Society Of Exploration Geophysicists, pp. 144-147.

Engineering Properties

Bigelow, E.  Investigating Rock Mechanical and Fluid Flow Properties. http://www.mgls.org/95Sym/Papers/Bigelow/

Dunn, T., 1997.  UNB Geology 1001 Lecture 8-Geophysics I. http://www.unb.ca/courses/geol1001a/lec-8.htm

Gray, D., B. Goodway, and T. Chen.  Amplitude Versus Offset, Bridging the Gap: Using AVO to Detect Changes in Fundamental Elastic Constants. http://www.cseg.org/events/meetings/abstracts/1999/avo_ch2.pdf

High Resolution Geotomography and 3D-GPR Techniques to acterize Quarternary Gravel Deposits and Their Hydraulic Properties http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/geo/gpi/geophys/projects/shallow.html

Hoar, J. H., 1982.  Field Measurement of Seismic Wave Velocity and Attenuation for Dynamic Analyses.  Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas at Austin.

 Mooney, H. M., 1984.  Handbook of Engineering Geophysics; Volume 1:  Seismic.  Bison Instruments Inc., Minneapolis, MN, (612/926-1846).

 Natural Resources Canada.  Full Waveform Acoustic, Geologic Interpretation of Full Waveform Acoustic Logs.  http://borehole.gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/acst_e.htm

Nigbor, R.L., and T. Imai, 1994, The suspension P-S velocity logging method Proceedings XIII ICSMFE, New Delhi, India.

 Remediation Requires a Knowledge of Subsurface Porosity, Permeability, and Fluid Saturation.  November, 2001. http://geosciences.llnl.gov/esd/expgeoph/berge/emsp/intro.html

Seismic Services International Corporation, Engineering Properties. http://www.quality-geophysics.com/seismic.pdf

Sheriff, R., and L. Geldart, 1995.  Exploration Seismology.  Cambridge University Press.

Sirles, P. C., and A. Viksne, 1990.  Site-Specific Shear Wave Velocity Determinations for Geotechnical Engineering Applications.  Geotechnical and Environmental Geophysics, Investigations in Geophysics No. 5, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Tulsa, OK, pp 121-131.

Sirles, P. C., D. Custer, and D. McKisson, 1993.  CROSSIT Version 2, (computer program for data reduction and presentation of crosshole seismic measurements), US Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO.

Stokoe, K. H., 1980.  Field Measurement of Dynamic Soil Properties.  Specialty Conference on Civil Engineering and Nuclear Power, ASCE, Sept. 15-17, Knoxville, TN.

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 1992.  Geophysical Investigations at Tabor Dam, Unpublished report D-3611, Seismotectonics and Geophysics Section, US Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO. 

Rippability

Caterpillar, 1988.  Handbook of Ripping. 8th Edition.

Hasbrouck Geophysics, Inc., Rippability (refraction seismic). http://www.oilsurvey.com/php/link.php3?CoId=7035&path=refrac.htm&PHPSESSID=a8744e535ce2fb5f285d5828e09650d1

Natural Resources.  Seismic Exploration with a General Relation of Wave Velocity to Rippability.  http://www.tcd.ie/Natural_Resources/Geoscience/prog/seism.htm

Rucker, M., 2000.  Applying the Seismic Refraction Technique to Exploration for Transportation Facilities.  www.modot.state.mo.us/g2000/PAPERS/CAT1/GEOPH52.PDF

 Utilities Detection

Cist, D., and A. Schutz, 2001.  State of the Art for Pipe and Leak Detection DE-FC26-01NT41317 A Low Cost GPR Gas and Pipe and Leak Detector.  Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc.  www.netl.doe.gov/scng/publications/t&d/tsa/pipe_leak.pdf

 Ditchwitch Web Site.  Utility Detection.  www.ditchwitch.com

 Duffy, D., 2001,  Finding Buried Utilities Before They Find You. www.forester.net/gx_0103_finding.html

 FHWA Web site.  Proper Use of Surface Geophysical Equipment. www.fhwa.dot.gov/programadmin/equip.htm.

 G.P.R. Geophysical Services.  Ground Penetrating Radar. www.geosurvey.co.nz/cases.htm

 Geometrics.  OhmMapper-Resistivity Mapping.  www.iris-instruments.com/Pdf%20file/Mapper_Gb.pdf

 Geovision Web Site.  Geophysical Techniques for Shallow Environmental Investigations.

 Hertlein, B., 1998.  Geophysics for Utility Location: When it Works-When it Won't. Presented at the American Gas Association 1998 Operations Conference. http://members.aol.com/ndtman1/papers/paprmenu.html

Locating Buried Utilities (using GPR). www.geophysicalsurveys.com/utility.htm,

 Park, C., R. Miller, et al., 2000.  Multichannel Seismic Surface Wave Methods for Geotechnical Applications: Proceedings First International Conference on the Application of Geophysical Methodologies & NDT to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure. www.modot.state.mo.us/g2000/PAPERS/CAT4/GEOPH4.PDF

 Pinelli, G, G. DePasquale, G. Manacorda, and P. Papeschi, 1999.  A Dedicated Radar System for Preliminary No-Dig Investigation. http://georadar.ids-spa.it/download/papers/no_dig_conf_99.pdf

 Roubal, M., 2000.  Evaluating & Locating Engineering Structures Using Non-destructive Testing Technology.  Proceedings First International Conference on the Application of Geophysical Methodologies & NDT to Transportation Facilities and Infrastructure. www.modot.state.mo.us/g2000/PAPERS/CAT2/GEOPH51.PDF

 Sterling, R., 2000.  Utility Locating Technologies: A Summary of Responses to a Statement of Need.  Distributed by the Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer. http://flc2.federallabs.org/utilities/Presentations/Utility_Locating_Technologies_Report.pdf

 Utility Detection.  Rycom 8875 Pipe and Cable Locator. www.pollardwater.com/Emarket/Pages/P884%208875%20Pipe&CableLocator.asp

 Utility Detection. RD 590 APT. www.radiodetection.com/products/html/rd590apt.cfm

 Utility Detection. Risor-bond 1205. www.omnitest.co.uk/tdr.html

 Utility Detection. Sensors & Software-Noggin. wwwsensoft.ca/pmds/nn_br.pdf

Utility Detection. Subsite 75R/75T-action. www.ricona.de/produkte/dw/75r75t/start.shtml

www.geovision.com/PDF/M_Environmental.PDF

Tanks

Expedited Site Assessment Tools for Underground Storage Tank Sites-A Guide for Regulators. EPA 510-B-97-001;March 1997, www.epa.gov/swerust1/pubs/esa-ch3.pdf,

 NWGLED Web Site.  List of Leak Detection Evaluations for Underground Storage Tank (UST) Systems. www.nwglde.org/downloads.html

 Soule, R. Survey Over a UST Using Combined Magnetometer/EM61. www.terraplus.com/papers/soule.htm

Plumes

Anderson, J., and J. Peltola, 1996.  Ground Penetrating Radar as a Tool for Detecting Contaminated Areas. http://www.cee.vt.edu/program_areas/environmental/teach/gwprimer/gprjp/gprjp.html

 Berryman, J.G.  Surface and Borehole Electromagnetic Imaging of Conduction Contaminant Plumes.  http://math.stanford.edu/~dorn/elmag/report1/firstyear.html

 BYU Web Site.  GPR Used to Assess Natural Hydrogeologic Conditions. http://emrl.byu.edu/chris/gpr.htm

 Cist, D., and A. Schutz, 2001. State of the Art for Pipe and Leak Detection DE-FC26-01NT41317 A Low Cost GPR Gas and Pipe and Leak Detector. Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc.  www.netl.doe.gov/scng/publications/t&d/tsa/pipe_leak.pdf

 Digistar Web Site.  EM Mapping of Plumes. http://www.digistar.mb.ca/minsci/finding/electromag1.htm

 Edwards Air Force Base Web Site.  Plume Example. http://www.edwards.af.mil/penvmng/web manuals/rts/1999rts/may99/maypge5.htm,

 Electrical Resistance Tomography, Innovative Technology Summary Report. DOE/EM-0538 http://apps.em.doe.gov/ost/pubs/itsrs/itsr17.pdf

 EM and Radar Uses for Plumes.  http://www.on.ec.gc.ca/pollution/ecnpd/tabs/tab03-e.html

 EM Induction Surveys Near the Norman Landfill, USGS EM31/EM34 Data and Images. http://ok.water.usgs.gov/norlan/em31_34.html

 G.P.R. Geophysical Services.  Ground Penetrating Radar. www.geosurvey.co.nz/cases.htm

 GEOE 475.  Advanced Hydrogeology Course Notes. http://www.engr.usask.ca/classes/GEOE/475/notes/geoe475contamenant.ppt

 Geosurvey Web Site.  GPR Image of Oil Plume.  http://www.geosurvey.co.nz/cases.htm,

 Godwin, M., and Monks, K.,  Sample Design Optimization and Identification of Contaminant Plumes and Subsurface Structures Through Use of Multi-tool Surface Geophysics. http://www.containment.fsu.edu/cd/content/pdf/187.pdf

 Griesemer, J.  Diving Plumes.  http://www.state.nj.us/dep/srp/news/2001/0105_04.htm

Johnson, C., J. Lane, J. Williams, and F. Haeni, 2001.  Application of Geophysical Methods to Delineate Contamination in Fractured Rock at the University of Connecticut Landfill, Storrs, Connecticut. http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/bgas/publications/SAGEEP01_135/

 U.S. Geological Survey.  Contaminate Plumes and Geophysics. Denver, CO. http://earth.agu.org/revgeophys/phillj01/node17.html

 USGS Web Site.  Assessment of Natural Attenuation in the East Branch Canal Creek Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Marylandhttp://md.usgs.gov/projects/md135.html,

Unexploded Ordnance (UXO)

UXO Information.  http://www.blackhawk-uxo.com/index.html,

Gamey, T., W. Doll, D. Bell, A. Duffy, and S. Millhouse.  Evaluation of Improved Airborne Techniques for Detection of UXO. http://www.esd.ornl.gov/people/gamey/papers/HM3%20BBR.pdf

 Hollyer, G., and L. Racic.  Enhancing Geophysical Data Acquisition, Quality Control, Processing, Analysis and Visualization for UXO Detection, Characterization and Discrimination. www.geosoftx.com/support/Papers/pdfs/enhancinggeophysicsforuxo.pdf

 Innovative Seismic System for Buried Unexploded Ordnance Detection and Classification. http://www.uxo.com/

 Krumhansl, P. E. Dorfman, P. Remington, H. Allik, R. Mullen, M. Goldsmith, and R. Barile. Innovative Seismic System for Buried Unexploded Ordnance Detection and Classification.  CU-1091 Final Report, BBN Technologies Report No. 8313. http://www.uxo.com/finalreport/Report8313_UXO.pdf

www.geosoftx.com/support/Papers/pdfs/integratedgeophysical.pdf

 Powers, M., and G. Olhoeft, 1996.  Computer Modeling to Transfer GPR UXO Detectability Knowledge Between Sites.  Proceedings UXO Forum 1996 Conference, Williamsburg, VA.  http://www.g-p-r.com/uxo96.pdf

 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2000.  Ordnance and Explosives Response.  Pamphlet EP 1110-1-18.  http://www.usace.army.mil/inet/usace-docs/eng-regs/er1110-1-8153/toc.htm

 Warren, J., and G. Fields, 2002.  Digital Geophysical Mapping for UXO.  RTLP/ITAM Conference-Digital Geophysical Mapping for UXO.  www.quality-geophysics.com/DGMforUXO.pdf

http://webstore.ansi.org/ansidocstore/default.asp

Vibration

American National Standard Institute ANSI, 1999.  Mechanical Vibration and Shock Affecting Man - Vocabulary, S3.32-1982. http://webstore.ansi.org/ansidocstore/default.asp

 Bollinger, G., 1971.  Blast Vibration Analysis.  Southern Illinois University Press, 1971.

Design Procedures for Dynamically Loaded Structures (Ch. 10), Prentice-Hall Inc, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

 Dowding, C., 1996.  Construction Vibrations. Prentice Hall, NJ.

Federal Transit Administration, 1995.  Transit Noise and Vibration Impact Assessment.  Available from Harris Miller Miller & Hanson Inc. http://www.hmmh.com/rail05.html#top

 Griffin, M., 1990.  Handbook of Human Vibrations. Academic Press Inc, San Diego, CA.

Rosenthal, M., and G. Morlock., 1978.  Blasting Guidance Manual, Office of Surface Mining and Reclamation and Enforcement, US Dept of the Interior.

Siskind, D., 2000.  Vibrations from Blasting.  International Society of Explosives Engineers, Cleveland. http://www.isee.org